The best metric is human behaviour. This one leads me to conclude China is doomed beyond hope. I live in a large urban center in North America. there is an olde school China Town nearby. The closest Home Depot has illegal undocumented Chinese labour most of whom speak no English.
No Mexicans just Chinese.
They work for $5 @ hour cash paid daily. Productivity is good. No injuries or health claims. Tomorrow same thing over again. The few who speak English claim to have managerial skills on large construction projects. The crews are clearly experienced at construction. This is not their first day at work.
No one knows where they live at night. No problems for local police. But they are building in North America and not China.
The process to come over which clearly is illegal was expensive and fraught with danger. But they left.
At the other end of the spectrum look at wealthy Chinese buying condo’s in North America and elsewhere. Same dynamic just a different wealth category. How many rich North Americans are buying in China.